Posted in network cable

Cat6 Vs. Cat7 Cable: Which Is Optimum for A New House?

It is generally acknowledged that build a new house is not a simple task, especially for setting up a new network in the new house. Cat5 network cable seems lags behind a lot in the long run of network cables. For future proofing network cables, both Cat6 and Cat7 Ethernet cables are good choice. Allodoxaphobia would occur under this occasion for most Ethernet users about the optimal one. This article would put emphasis on comparing the difference between Cat6 and Cat7 network cable, and guiding you to choose a better one for a new house in the following four aspects.

—Specification

Specification is paramount to network cables, so do the Cat6 and Cat7 Ethernet cables. Cat7 cable features even more strict specifications for crosstalk and system noise than Cat6 cable. Shielding has been added for individual wire pairs on the Cat7 cable. Besides, CAT 7 is backwards compatible with traditional Cat5 and Cat6 Ethernet. And Shielding has been added for individual wire pairs on the Category 7 cable. Xmultiple’s UltraJAX connectors are designed specifically for these high speeds with not contact pins and a printed circuit board with contact pads integrated into the RJ45 style housing.

Cat6 Cat6a Cat7 network cable

—Gigabit Ethernet

For setting up a network in a new house, it is necessary for us to take the prevalent network speed in the years ahead. Will home machines will be able to actually use 10G even in the next 10 years? Years ago, people did to put in cat6 rather than cat5e. They believed the market went from 1G which runs fine on 5e directly to 10G which requires cat6a or cat7. All those people who thought they would “save” money in the future found out they wasted it. The now run 1G over their very expensive (at install time) cat6 cable and if they ever want to go faster will have to replace it just as if they had put in cat5e.

—Transmission Frequency & Cabling Length

Cat6 cable standard provides performance of up to 250 MHz while Cat7 cable is rated for transmission frequencies of up to 600 MHz. The maximum cabling length of Cat6 network cable is 100 m. Cat7 has been designed as a standard for Gigabit Ethernet over 100 m of copper cabling.

SSTP-CAT7-CABLE-23AWG

—Price

With current SSD drives pushing past 500Mbytes which is around a 50% improvement in about a year and a half, 4k tv’s needing around 10gbs because you never get max bandwidth, going to be throwing spam about your house. As far as I’m concerned, I would lean towards cat7a if there is only a few hundred pounds difference. Both Cat7 and Cat6 cables are relatively expensive than the Cat5, Cat5e. Relatively speaking, Cat7 cable is more expensive than Cat6 cable. If you cannot afford both of them, and then Cat5e would also be a good choice for 10G network.

Cat7 Vs. Cat6: How to Choose?

According to the trend of network development, Cat7 cable is more appropriate for setting up a new house. The Cat7a network cable is particularly suitable for the new house. Under 40 Gigabit Ethernet, it will work up to 50 meters and under 100 Gigabit Ethernet, it is possible up to 15 meters. If you are in a tight budget, Cat6 and Cat5e cable would also be good choices.

 

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Posted in Fiber Optic Cable

OS2 Singlemode Simplex Vs. Duplex Patch Cable

As known to all, the fiber optic cables are divided into two types: singlemode and multimode, based on a completely different core diameter and mode of transmission. Singlemode fiber optic patch cables are called 9/125. This indicates the glass core is nine microns in diameter. The “125” is the size of the core plus the cladding (125 microns). Singlemode fiber optic patch cables can further be divided into simplex and duplex. This article would put emphasis on singlemode simplex and singlemode duplex fiber patches.

The ends of fiber patch are connected with connector plugs for connection of light circuit activity. If the cable has only one end terminated with connector while the other end ended with fiber, and then it is called pigtail. As we mentioned, the singlemode and multimode are two types of fiber patch cable. The diameter of the singlemode fiber core is 8μm~10μm. Fiber core is rounded with glass cover of lower refractive index than that of the fiber core, keeping the fiber inside the core. Outside the glass coating, it is a layer of thin plastic coating to protect the coating.

Compared to multimode fiber, singlemode fiber has a small loss in the long transmission distance. The potential of singlemode fiber’s bandwidth makes it the only option for high-speed and long-distance data transmission. Simplex and duplex singlemode fiber cables are the further classification of singlemode patch cables. Simplex means this cable is with only one thread of fiber optic glass inside the single core. Duplex fiber cable can be regarded as two simplex cables, either singlemode or multimode, having their jackets conjoined by a strip of jacket material, usually in a zipcord (side-by-side) style. In the following figures and charts, we would give two groups of comparison about OS2 LC to LC fiber cable (singlemode simplex and duplex) according to different polish type (UPC and APC).

Comparison group 1: LC/UPC-LC/UPC singlemode simplex Vs. duplex patch cable

LC(UPC)-LC(UPC) Singlemode simplex VS duplex

Figure1: LC/UPC-LC/UPC singlemode simplex patch cable Vs. LC/UPC-LC/UPC singlemode duplex patch cable

Chart1-UPC singlemode simplex Vs duplex patch cable

Chart1: LC/UPC-LC/UPC singlemode simplex patch cable Vs. LC/UPC-LC/UPC singlemode duplex patch cable

Comparison group 2: LC/APC-LC/APC singlemode simplex Vs. duplex patch cable

LC (APC)-LC(APC) single-mode duplex patch cable VS LC (APC)-LC(APC) single-mode simplex patch cable

Figure2: LC/UPC-LC/UPC singlemode simplex patch cable Vs. LC/UPC-LC/UPC singlemode duplex patch cable

Chart2-APC singlemode simplex Vs duplex patch cable

Chart2: LC/UPC-LC/UPC singlemode simplex patch cable Vs. LC/UPC-LC/UPC singlemode duplex patch cable

According to the above pictures and charts, we figure out the differences between LC/UPC-LC/UPC singlemode simplex patch cable and LC/UPC-LC/UPC singlemode duplex patch cable, and between LC/UPC-LC/UPC singlemode simplex patch cable and LC/UPC-LC/UPC singlemode duplex patch cable based on the detailed parameter. In the simplex fiber patch, data is only supported in the one direction while the duplex patch allows the data to transmit in two directions.

Conclusion

Therefore, duplex communication is the combination of simplex single communications which requires that both sender and receiver have the independent ability of transmitting and receiving. Singlemode fiber patch cables are the best choice for transmitting data over long distances. They are usually used for connections over large areas, such as college campuses and cable television networks.

 

Posted in Fiber Optic Cable

Bend Insensitive Fiber Optic Cables: Advantages & Compatibility

Optical fiber is made by glass or plastic, so it is easy to be bent. As is known to all, the main function of optical fiber is transmitting light. Once the fiber has been bent, there must be fiber loss during the process of transmission. New type of “bend-insensitive” singlemode and multimode fiber were introduced in 2007 and in 2009 respectively. This kind of fiber is specifically manufactured for the fibers could be bent in what seemed like impossibly small radii without significant light loss. This article would introduce the advantage and compatibility of bend insensitive fiber optic cables.

Bend Insensitive Fiber Optic Cables

As being mentioned, bend insensitive fiber optic cables provide a effective solution for accidentally twisting or bending the cable. But what are they? “Bend Insensitive” or BI cable is designed to be resistant to bend related damage. BI fiber cable has a flex cycle count in the thousands, sometimes as high as 7,500 or more cycles. In addition, it has a much smaller bend radius, meaning it can tolerate tighter corners or being wrapped around cable management equipment.

om4-lc-lc-bend-insensitive-50125-multimode-dx-fiber-cable

Different from the regular fiber, bend-insensitive fiber adds a layer of glass around the core of the fiber which has a lower index of refraction that literally “reflects” the weakly guided modes back into the core when stress normally causes them to be coupled into the cladding. Some early singlemode fibers (depressed-cladding fibers) used a similar technology to contain the light in the core of the fiber but this design has a much stronger effect. The following picture shows the technique of bend-insensitive multimode fiber.

technique of bend-insensitive multimode fiber

Advantages

Compared to the normal fiber, bend-insensitive fiber has absolute predominance. In buildings, it allows fiber to be run inside molding around the ceiling or floor and around doors or windows without inducing high losses. It is also insurance against problems caused by careless installation. In patch panels, it should not suffer from bending losses where the cables are tightly bent around the racks. BI fibers are also available in 50/125 MM (OM3 and OM4) and SM versions. Considering the advantages of BI fiber and the small incremental cost to manufacture it, some manufacturers have decided to make all their 50/125 MM fiber bend-insensitive fiber.

BIMMF

Do BI Fiber Compatible With Regular Fiber?

The answer is yes for SM fibers. Since only one mode is guided in the core, the trench has a minimal impact on system performance and measurement. It seems you can mix and match regular and BI SMF fibers with no problems. For MM fibers, it is still needed to be proved. Owing to the limitation of the current technology, the compatibility with MMF is not so sure so far. Measurement of core size, NA, differential mode delay (DMD) and bandwidth were developed prior to the introduction of BI MMF designs. These measurements are in the process of being evaluated and updated so measurement results may depend on the manufacturer of the BI MMF.

Conclusion

Bend-insensitive fiber has been widely applied in premises installations like apartment buildings or for patch cables, where it simplifies installation and use. BI SMF is also used in OSP cables since it allows fabrication of smaller, lighter high fiber count cables. Using bend-insensitive fiber cable, it is unnecessary to worry about the accidentally twisting or bending the cable.

 

Posted in Switch

Cisco Catalyst Vs. Small Business Switches

Over the years, Cisco have launched its Catalyst series switches in succession, from Cisco Catalyst 1900 Series Switch to Cisco Catalyst 9500 Series Switch. And they have been widely applied in data center, high-performance computing networks, enterprise core and distribution layers, and service provider applications. Nowadays, small business enterprises account a large share among all the forms of business enterprises. It seems that it is hard to choose network switches between Cisco Catalyst and small business switches. This article would mainly introduce the Cisco Catalyst series switches and small business switches and further analyze their differences.

Introduction to Cisco Catalyst Series Switches

Cisco switches have been highly favored by Ethernet users, for they come in a variety of Ethernet-based platforms, providing everything from simple connectivity to high-end, multilayer intelligent service switching solutions. The Cisco Catalyst series switch delivers ease of management and configuration for small to medium-sized enterprise wiring closets in a single system, without the need for additional modules. These switches also provide high performance switching solutions ideal for public service providers or large private enterprises with a high volume of traffic and mid-sized networks deploying Internet business applications such as IP telephony, e-commerce, or Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP). Cisco Catalyst Switch Series are mainly listed in the following: Until now, Cisco have launched about 25 Cisco Catalyst Series Switches.

Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series Switches

Information About Small Business Switches

Small business switch, also called SMB switch, which is a kind of switch specifically manufactured for small business enterprises. But small businesses can sometimes have a tough time buying networking equipment. The problem is often the cost- that equipment can cost upwards of thousands of dollars, a budget that often isn’t at all feasible for small businesses. Thankfully, however, there are high-performing, stable, and reliable switches for the small business market that come in at under $1000 and are still suitable for small business use. The top five small business switches are Cisco SR2024CT 24 Port Gigabit Switch, Cisco SG 300-28P 28-Port Gigabit Switch, D-Link DGS-1024D 24-Port Gigabit Switch, TP-Link TL-SG1024D 24-Port Gigabit Switch, and Netgear JFS524E-100NAS 100 Megabit Switch.

FS-1-10G-enterprise-switches

Cisco Catalyst Vs. Small Business Switches
—Bandwidth

Switching and forwarding bandwidth are typically higher in the Cisco catalyst series switch. Small business switches are relatively lower in terms of bandwidth. Customers would get better support with the catalyst (smart net) than the small business ( cisco small business )

—Software

The Catalyst series switches’ value is not around performance, but rather around the software and what it brings. Since it is deployed in more diverse and more mission critical environments than any other product in the market, you can pretty much be sure that it is rock solid. It also has a lot more levers and dials to tune around QoS, security, etc.

—Configuration

Small business switches would give basic configuration that would be sufficient for small businesses with less details on controlling the network. On the other hand, the catalyst would provide you with more variety of options and would help you control your network better.

—Costs

Relatively speaking, Cisco small business switches cost less than Cisco Catalyst series switches. One good news the SMB switch will fit the bill at 1/3 the price. Cisco has 4 models of the Small Business Switch line that will meet or beat 176, just shown as the following.

4 Modules of Cisco SMB switches

Conclusion

This article mainly covered the Cisco Catalyst series switches, small business switches and their differences from the aspect of bandwidth, software, configuration and costs. You can choose an appropriate one according to your actual need. For the small business switch, you can take FS a try. We offer the small business switch with best price and quality. For 1/10G poe switch, only needs $249. For more details, please visit http://www.fs.com.

 

Posted in Modules

Cisco 40G QSFP Datasheet

As a worldwide leader in networking, Cisco is noted for its networking hardware and telecommunication equipment. With the uprising of 40 Gigabit Ethernet network, 40G optics would be large in demand. This article would comprehensively present the Cisco QSFP Datasheet.

Overview on Cisco 40G QSFP Modules

As the definition of 40G QSFP modules is known to most of the people, so we would mainly introduce distinctive features of the Cisco 40G QSFP modules. They are interoperable with other IEEE-compliant 40GBASE interfaces where applicable. And the high-speed electrical interface compliant to the IEEE 802.3ba standard. All the Cisco 40G QSFP+ modules were certified and tested for superior performance, quality, and reliability. So the customers could rest assured to plug these hot-swappable input or output device into the 40 Gigabit Ethernet ports.

40G QSFP modules

Nowadays, they have been widely applied to data center, high-performance computing networks, enterprise core and distribution layers, and service provider applications. Basically, there are totally 7 form factors of Cisco 40G QSFP modules. Owing to time and space limitation, we would briefly introduce QSFP-40G-SR4, QSFP-40G-LR4, QSFP-40G-ER4, QSFP-40G-PLRL4, and QSFP-40G-CSR4.

Cisco QSFP-40G-SR4 Datasheet

The Cisco 40GBASE-SR4 QSFP modules enable high-bandwidth 40G optical links over 12fiber parallel fiber terminated with MPO/MTP multifiber female connectors. They support link lengths of 100 m and 150 m by using OM3 and OM4 multimode fibers respectively. The Cisco QSFP-40G-SR4 datasheet is shown as below:

Cisco QSFP-40G-SR4 Datasheet

Cisco QSFP-40G-LR4 Datasheet

The Cisco 40GBASE-LR4 QSFP module supports link lengths of up to 10 km over singlemode fiber with duplex LC connectors. The Cisco QSFP-40G-LR4 datasheet is shown as below:

Cisco QSFP-40G-LR4 Datasheet

Cisco QSFP-40G-ER4 Datasheet

The Cisco 40GBASE-ER4 QSFP module supports link lengths up to 40 km over singlemode fiber with duplex LC connectors. The Cisco QSFP-40G-ER4 datasheet is shown as below:

Cisco QSFP-40G-ER4 Datasheet

Cisco QSFP-40G-PLRL4 Datasheet

The Cisco 40GBASE-ER4 QSFP module supports link lengths up to 1.4 km over singlemode fiber with MPO/MTP connectors. The QSFP-40G-PLRL4 datasheet is shown as below:

Cisco QSFP-40G-PLRL4 Datasheet

Cisco QSFP-40G-CSR4 Datasheet

The Cisco 40GBASE-ER4 QSFP module supports link lengths up to 400 m over OM4 multimode fiber with MPO/MTP connectors. The Cisco QSFP-40G-CSR4 datasheet is shown as below:

Cisco QSFP-40G-CSR4 Datasheet

Conclusion

40G optical transceivers account for a large share on 40G Ethernet optics’ market, which are paramount for data centers, enterprises and etc. For the Cisco 40G optical modules, FS.COM will be a good choice with good compatibility, support offerings and great reputation. All of our optical modules are strictly tested to ensure 100% compatible with the Cisco, Juniper, HP and other major brands. For more details, please visit our website http://www.fs.com.

 

Posted in Switch

Why Do We Use Fiber Optic Switch?

A fiber optic switch is a device of transferring signal and data through fiber optic cables and optical modules. Compared to copper cables, the speed of data transmission is faster and more efficient. Nowadays, the fiber optic switches have been widely applied to our daily life and data center. Some extremely fine glass tubing is used to send signals for phones, computer networks, televisions and other systems. Like with many other great inventions, there are both advantages and disadvantages associated with fiber optic. This article would mainly give an explanation about the reason of using fiber optic switch from the perspective of pros and cons of fiber optic switch.

Advantages

Fiber optic usage can be used in a wide range of applications to enhance service delivery. Phone systems, mechanical systems, lighting, television and computer networking have all benefited from fiber optic developments. The improved system performance is a vital factor in the overall service delivery as well as efficient and improved communications. Congestion and crowded networks are now a thing of the past with the invention of the fiber optic switch. Signals are transmitted as they occur rather than all at once.

Fiber-optic is versatile, it has been penetrated almost every walk of life, the telecommunication industry in particular. Phone systems, mechanical systems, lighting, television and computer networking have all benefited from fiber optic developments. Thanks to the fiber optic switch, the efficiency of the service delivery has been greatly enhanced. With the invention of fiber optic switch, network congestion is no longer a problem. All the signals and data can almost be transmitted and received at the same time. Moreover, the number of transmitting signals are not limited anymore.

fs.com-switch

Fiber optic cable are used for transmitting signals, which could be more clear and stronger than those transmitted via copper cabling. Signals attached great importance to create a more organized system of signal delivery. Through fiber optic installations, crashing or stalling of systems due to signal overload is eliminated.

In addition to signal delivery systems, fiber-optic also has to do with other systems such as electrical noises, radio frequencies, electromagnetic interference or alarm systems. The disruptions caused in the airwaves would not affect signal transmitting. Apart from being more efficient, the fiber switch is also much faster than the previously used copper switch. This has positively lifted the Internet bandwidth. Increased bandwidth and capacity encourages more effective data handling and transfer. Signal security is also much higher with fiber cabling than electric interfaces. This is extremely vital where sensitive and confidential transmissions are involved, such as FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigation), CIA (Central Intelligence Agency), DHS(United States Department of Homeland Security).

Disadvantages

Every new invention has its defects, so does the fiber optic switch. Relatively speaking, the fiber optic is an emerging technology and there is still a long way to go. The expertise and resources required to install fiber cabling have not yet spread out widely. In this way, the fiber cabling really costs a lot. It is a complex project, for it covers a wide range of specialized knowledge, tools and complicate processes.

It seems that fiber optic switch is easy to make network connectivity, but it is not so easy to install it. Installation is both a time and labor-intensive undertaking albeit one that yields improved communications. Prerequisite conditions add to the rigors of installation. Prior to installing of a fiber optic cable and switches, the environment must be checked and found to be free of pollution and dust. Temperatures must not exceed 113 degrees Fahrenheit, and the area must be well-ventilated. It is a delicate process that requires extremely careful handling.

Economic Choices for Fiber Optic Switch

For optical switch, you can take FS.COM for a try, we offer network Ethernet switches with high performance and high quality. The following is our S3700-24T4S, which is deployed at the access layer of an enterprise network to deliver cost-effective packet switching capability. It provides 24*10/100/1000Base-T Ports and 4 10G SFP+ ports to extend your home or business network at gigabit speeds.

FS enterprise switches

Conclusion

This article mainly talked about the merits and defects of using fiber optic switch. All in all, the advantages outweigh the disadvantages. It has changed our life a lot, and we are benefit from it, especially the datacom industry. Overall, there is a prosperous future ahead for the fiber optic switch, we shall see.

 

Posted in Modules

Why MSA Standard Is So Important for QSFP Transceiver?

When we are selecting some optics for our switches and servers, the MSA (Multi-Source Agreement) standard always come first in our mind. No matter the optical transceiver are made by some major brands, such as Cisco, Juniper, Brocade, HP, or by third-party manufacturers, they all emphasis MSA compatibility. With the upgrading of Ethernet network, more and more Ethernet users turn their eye on 40G optics, 40G optical transceivers in particular. So why MSA standard is so important for QSFP transceiver? This article would provide a satisfied answer for you.

About MSA standard

MSA is a standard to normalize the networking equipment among competing industry manufacturers, such as Ethernet switches, routers, servers and etc. All optic transceivers are manufactured to comply with MSA standards. All elements of fiber optic transceivers are specified by a MSA agreement, including the mechanical and electrical interface.

MSA standard

40G QSFP Specification

There are many common types of 40G QSFP transceiver, such as 40G QSFP SR4, LR4, PRLR4, CSR4, and etc. We would choose 40GBASE-SR Bi-Directional QSFP transceiver to illustrate. It is a Four-Channel,Pluggable, LC Duplex, Fiber-Optic QSFP+ Transceiver for 40 Gigabit Ethernet Applications. This transceiver is a high performance module for short-range duplex data communication and interconnect applications. It integrates four electrical data lanes in each direction into transmission over a single LC duplex fiber optic cable. Each electrical lane operates at 10.3125 Gbps and conforms to the 40GE XLPPI interface. It conforms to the QSFP MSA standards. The following figure is serveral types of 40G QSFP transceiver.

40G QSFP transceivers

Why MSA Standard Is So Important for QSFP Transceiver?

For this question, we would clarify it from four aspects—cost, security and issurance as well as wide selection.

—Cost

MSA standards brought great changes to optical transceiver market, it is no more monopolized by some certain major manufactures. In this way, customers have more choices for their optics over the competitive price. Moreover, customers could save more costs by purchasing their ideal optical transceivers with high quality but low costs.

—Security and Issurance

The QSFP MSA standards guarantee that QSFP modules are identical in form factor and functionality to the equivalent Cisco QSFP modules and meet the requirements of all networking equipment brands that follow the MSA standards.

—Wide selection

Using third-party, MSA compliant QSFP optical transceivers offer all the benefits of the name-brand product, but offer more selection and competitive pricing. This means that you can find a supplier who focuses on having the right product available at all times and at a fair price. Sounds like a win-win right?

Conclusion

Through this article, we cleared at MSA standard, 40G QSFP transceiver specification, and reasons of the importance of MSA standards to QSFP transceivers. Remember to select MSA certified products when looking to replace QSFPs to avoid losing valuable warranty coverage. Besides, if you are looking for some QSFP transceivers specified by MSA, you can take FS.COM into consideration. All of our optical transceivers are 100% ensured to apply to MSA standards, you can rest assured to use them. For more details, please visit our website.

 

Posted in Switch

Layer2 Versus Layer3 Networking Switch

Developed in 1980s, Layer 2 (L2) switches have been widely applied to high-speed data transmission in the enterprise between end stations. Layer 3 (L3) switch works as routing over IP network, which mainly functions as dealing with network traffic. This article would provide general information about layer 2 and layer 3 switches, their differences as well as guidance on making choices between those two switches.

Layer 2 and Layer 3 Networks

Information About OSI Model

If you want to figure out the layer things, you must understand what is the OSI model at first. OSI stands for Open Systems Interconnection, which is a model used to standardise the functions of telecommunication and computing systems around the world. It is a controlled hierarchy where information is passed from one layer to the next creating a blueprint for how information is passed from physical electrical impulses all the way to applications.

Basically, there are totally 7 layers in the OSI model, the “layers” refers to how you configure an IT network. Function of each layer is to provide services to the above layer, so L2 props up L3, shown as the below figure.

osi-model

Layer 2 Switch

As per OSI Model, Layer 2 is Data Link Layer (DLL), which is basically divided into two sub-layers: Logic Link Control (LLC) and Media Access Control (MAC). LLC layer provides services to upper layer, and controls frame synchronization, flow control and error checking. MAC layer performs Layer 2 functions like switching, physical addressing etc. Besides, it controls how a computer on the network gains access to the data and permission to transmit it. Traditional switching operates at layer 2 of the OSI model, where packets are sent to a specific switch port based on destination MAC addresses. There are three distinct functions of layer 2 switching. The following figure shows how layer 2 switching working.

  • Address learning
  • Forward/filter decisions
  • Loop avoidance

layer 2 switching
Layer 3 Switch

With the support of switching and routing technologies, Layer 3 creating logical paths, known as virtual circuits, for transmitting data from node to node. Routing and forwarding are functions of this layer, as well as addressing, internetworking, error handling, congestion control and packet sequencing. Compared to Layer 2 switching, Layer 3 switching is a relatively new term. That has been extended by a numerous vendors to describe their products. Here is an example to illustrate it. one school uses this term to describe fast IP routing via hardware, while another school uses it to describe Multi Protocol Over ATM (MPOA). The following figure shows how layer 3 switching working.

layer 3 switching

Layer 2 Vs. Layer 3 Switching

—Functions

Layer 2 Data Link: Responsible for physical addressing, error correction, and preparing the information for the media.

Layer 3 Network: Responsible for logical addressing and routing IP, ICMP, ARP, RIP, IGRP, and routers.

—Network traffic

Layer 2 networks forward all their traffic, including ARP and DHCP broadcasts. Anything transmitted by one device is forwarded to all devices. This type of broadcast traffic is very fast. When the network gets too large, the broadcast traffic begins to create congestion and decreases network efficiency.

Layer 3 traffic restricts broadcast traffic. Administrators on L3 can segment networks and restrict broadcast traffic to subnetworks, limiting the congestion of broadcast on large networks. This reduce overall traffic levels by allowing administrators to divide networks into smaller parts and restrict broadcasts to only that sub-network.

In a conclusion, there is a limit to the size of a layer 2 network. However, a properly configured layer 3 network with the correct knowledge and hardware can have infinite growth.

—Network routing

Layer 2 switch lacks router hardware, leaving them susceptible to broadcast storm and the additional administrative overhead of IP allocations due to flat subnet across multiple sites. A Layer 3 switch is a high-performance device for network routing. A router works with IP addresses at layer 3 of the model. Layer 3 networks are built to run on on layer 2 networks. But Layer 2 switches only require switching, no routing gear is necessary. Besides, they cost less and offer very low latency.

Which is Better?

This is an open question, and the answer actually depends on what is your need. Both layers of the OSI have their role in the architecture of network performance. An L2 network would be more useful broadcasting information between two computers in the same office, close together. Routing controls happen at Layer 3, and that is what most businesses need. If you are looking for some L2/L3 switches, you can take FS a try. We offer L2/L3 network switches with high performance but low costs. For details, please visit our website.

 

Posted in Fiber Optic Cable

Applications of Fiber Optic Cable

Around 4 decades ago, fiber optic cable brought earthshaking changes to the world, especially for the telecommunication industry. Optic fiber cable has right advantage compared to copper cable in terms of bandwidth, distance, security, reliability and etc. Fiber cables, made of very thin strands of pure glass, can travel between 984.2 ft to 24.8 miles while the maximum transmission distance is 9,328 ft. Nowadays, the common fiber cables are use metallic wires instead of traditional approaches of wiring. And they have been applied to many industries, which are mainly described as the following.

Fiber Optical cable

Computer Networking

Using fiber optic cables, data transformation between computers in one same building or some nearby places become faster and easier than copper medium. This make computer network users can receive and read information and files just a few seconds, which incredibly saved time and enhanced efficiency.

Cable Television

Over the years, optical fiber cables are widely applied to cable television from the aspect of speed and price. With the higher and great bandwidth and speed, the optical fiber cables are optimal solutions for high definition televisions. Besides, the fiber cables are cost effective choices compared to the same quantity of copper wire.

Cable television with fiber cable

Internet

Unlike copper cable, fiber optic cables are less bulky, more flexible and carry more data. They can transmit large amounts of data at very high speeds. Therefore, they have been extensively used in Internet cables.

Telephone

Decades ago, we could only communicates with each other by letters, telegraphs, walkie-talkies, that is too time-consuming and would sometimes cause some irreparable losses for the sake of timeliness. By using fiber optic communication, we could talk to anybody at anywhere we like without any delay. We can receive and transmit our information simultaneously. This effectively improved our time on communication.

Mechanical Inspections

Optical fiber cables can also be deployed into inspection of hard-to-reach places. They are especially applied to on-site inspections for engineers as well as inspection of pipes for plumbers.

Surgery and Dentistry

In the field of medicine and research, you would also find the traces of fiber optic cables. Besides, they are widely applied to microscopy and biomedical researched as well. As an paramount part of non-intrusive surgical methods (also known as endoscopy). In the process of such kind of surgery, bright light is used to lighten the wound on the body. In this way, the number and size of incisions could be possibly reduced.

Military and Space Applications

Data security and confidentiality attach great importance to military and aerospace applications, fiber optic cables provide an ideal solution for data transmission in these areas.

Automotive Industry

In the field of automotive industry, fiber optic cables mainly function in the lighting and safety parts. With their superior lighting and narrow spacing, fiber optic cables are widely used in lighting in automotive industry, both in the interior and exterior of vehicles. Moreover, fiber optic cables can transmit signals between different parts of the vehicle at lightning speed and have been deployed in many other vehicles as well, especially the vehicles related to lighting. This attaches great importance in the use of safety applications such as traction control and airbags.

Lighting And Decorations

As we mentioned in the last paragraph, fiber optical cables have been widely deployed into the industry related to lighting. And thus, they could be used for decorations for house, streets, office, almost everywhere you want to decorate. They are easy, economical and attractive solution to lighting projects, especially for celebrating some festivals, birthday parties.

Fiber-optical-cable-lighting.

Conclusion

Fiber optic cables provide a convenient, cost-effective and easy solution to many applications of industries, and they have been penetrated almost every walk of life. This article mainly discussed about their main applications—computer networking, cable television, Internet, telephone, mechanical inspections, surgery and dentistry, military and space, automobile, lighting and decorations.

Posted in Modules

Zero Cost—40G Migration with QSFP BiDi Transceiver

As the fast development of Gigabit Ethernet, 10Gbps cannot satisfy the users anymore, especially for some medium and large enterprises. Traditionally, it would cost a lot to update your network. It refers to a large range of things—cables, transceivers, switches and etc. But now, it would not be a problem with innovative 40Gbps Quad Small Form-Factor Pluggable (QSFP) bidirectional (BiDi) technology. That allows reuse of reuse of existing 10Gbps fiber infrastructure for 40Gbps connections. We would give further explanation and demonstration in the following passage.

40G QSFP transceiver with Cisco switch

Figure1: 40G QSFP BiDi transceiver in Cisco Switch

Why Standard QSFP Transceivers Are Not Good Options?

We would basically clarify this part from the aspect of connectors and fiber strands.

—Connectors

10G SR SFP+ and 40G QSFP SR transceivers use basically different connectivity formats. 10GBASE SR transceivers transmit data over mutimode fiber with LC connectors while 40GBASE SR4 transceivers over ribbon mutimode fiber with MPO connectors. As a consequence, 40G MPO-based SR4 transceivers cannot reuse aggregation fiber infrastructure built for 10G connectivity. That means we need to redesign and replace the fiber cabling infrastructure.

—Fiber strands

10GBASE SR transceivers require 2 fiber strands per 10Gbps link while 40GBASE SR4 transceivers require at least of 8 fiber strands, and often 12 fiber strands in practice. The reason for this requirement is that 40G SR4 use 4 parallel fiber pairs (8 fiber strands) at 10Gbps each for a total of 40Gbps full duplex, as shown in Figure 2. The 40G transceivers use MPO-12 connectors terminated with 12-fiber ribbons. In this way, 4 fiber strands in each connection are unused and wasted.

Principles of 40G QSFP transceiver

Figure2: Principles of 40G QSFP transceiver

Why Use QSFP BiDi Transceiver for 40G migration?

The 40G QSFP BiDi transceiver is a pluggable optical transceiver with a duplex LC connector interface for transmission within short distance over multimode fiber. It transmits fully duplex 40G data via OM3 or OM4 multimode fiber cable with one duplex LC connector. This makes it easier to reuse 10G fiber infastructure to migrate 10G to 40G network. In this way, the data center operators could make 10G to 40G migration without making ant changes to the previous 10G fiber cable plant. It offers a compelling solution that enables reuse of their existing 10G duplex multimode infrastructure for migration to 40G Ethernet connectivity.

Principles of 40G QSFP BiDi transceiver

Figure3: Principles of 40G QSFP BiDi transceiver

The 40G QSFP BiDi transceiver consists of two 20G transmit and receive channels in the 832-918 nanometer wavelength range, each transmitted and received simultaneously over two wavelengths on a single multimode fiber strand. As a consequence, an aggregated duplex 40-Gbps link can be achieved over a multimode duplex LC-terminated fiber cable. The link lengths of 40G QSFP+ transceiver can be up to 100 and 150 meters respectively on laser-optimized OM3 and OM4 multimode fiber.

>How Money Saved with 40G QSFP BiDi Transceiver for 40G Upgrading?

In the following part, we would take Cisco QSFP BiDi transceiver as an example to demonstrate costs saved by using the module in data center networks. We would show you how the cost saved by the BiDi transceiver for migrating 10G to 40G network.

As is known to all, networking devices can be directly connected with fiber cables. This direct connection design can be used to connect devices within short distance in an unstructured cabling system. Direct connection between two 40G transceivers can be provided by multimode cables with either QSFP SR4 or QSFP BiDi transceivers at two ends, just shown as the following figure.

40G direct connection

Figure4: 40G direct connection

The Cisco QSFP BiDi transceiver uses LC connectors while QSFP SR4 uses MPO-12 fiber connectors. None of the existing 10G multimode cables can be reused with QSFP SR4 transceivers, because the two connectors are completely not matched at all. With Cisco QSFP BiDi transceiver, the cable can be reused for the same type of connectors. As a result, it would bring zero-cost cabling migration from direct 10Gbps connections to direct 40Gbps connections. Therefore, in comparison to QSFP SR4 transceivers, Cisco QSFP BiDi transceivers reduce costs by 100 percent.

Conclusion

40G QSFP BiDi transceiver provides the most cost-effective solution for 10G to 40G network migration. By transmitting full-duplex 40 Gigabit Ethernet over a duplex multimode fiber, it helps enable seamless 10 to 40 Gigabit Ethernet migration over your 10 Gigabit Ethernet fiber infrastructure in a zero cost cabling. If you need 40G QSFP transceivers, you can take FS a try. We offer not only the mentioned QSFP SR4, QSFP BiDi transceivers, but the many other standard 40G QSFP transceivers with high quality but low cost. For more details, please visit our website.