Posted in Fiber Optic Cable

How to Select The Perfect Fiber Jumper Cables?

Fiber jumper cables are mainly used for connection in the context of optical fiber communications including applications like cable TV (CATV), inside buildings and in fiber to the home (FTTH) installations. Nowadays, optical fiber jumpers are varied in cables and connector types. It is hard to determine the differences between one fiber optic cable jumper and another. This article would put emphasis on guiding you to select the perfect fiber jumper cables from the following six perspectives.

fiber-patch-cords

Cable Type of Fiber Jumper Cables

Fiber jumper cables comes in two general types, singlemode and multimode optical fiber jumper. They are different in fiber diameter, classifications of fiber strands, jacket color, transmission speed and etc.

Singlemode fiber jumper cable generally has a 9 micron diameter glass fiber. There are two sub groups (referred to as OS1 and OS2) but most cable is “dual rated” to cover both classifications. Multimode optical fiber jumper can have several different diameters and classifications of fiber strands. The two diameters currently in use are 62.5 Micron and 50 Micron. Within the 50 Micron diameter multimode cable, there are three different grades (referred to as OM2, OM3, and OM4). The cable types used in the patch cord should match that of the network cabling to which they are attached via the patch panel.

Jacket Diameters

The fiber optic cable jumpers may be available in different “jacket diameters” (such as 2mm or 3mm). Thinner diameters (1.6 or 2mm) may be preferable in dense installation within a single rack since they take up less space and are more flexible. Fiber optic cable jumpers that route from rack to rack (especially via cable tray) may be more suitable if they have the thicker jacket that results in larger diameters thus making them more rigid.

Jacket Material

Flammability of the jacket material could become an issue if the area they are in has special requirements for flame spread or products of combustion in case of a fire. In these cases, optical jumpers may have to be classified as “Plenum Rated” (OFNP) rather than “Riser Rated” (OFNR).

Connector Type

See the connector type descriptions below. Some fiber jumper cables may have different connector types on each end to accommodate interconnection of devices with dissimilar connectors. In some cases, there may be a connector on only one end, and bare or unterminated fiber on the other. These are usually referred to as “pigtails” rather than “patch Cords”.

fiber-optic-connector

Simplex or Duplex

Unlike copper patch cords which send information in both directions (having multiple pairs of conductors with which to do so), most fiber jumper cables have a single strand of fiber allowing for signal flow in one direction only.

Connecting equipment so that it can send and receive information requires two strands of fiber (one to transmit and one to receive information). This can be accommodated by using two “simplex” (single strand of fiber) cables for each equipment interconnection or a “duplex” cable, with conductors and/or connectors bonded together in pairs.

Length

Overall length of the fiber jumper cables may be specified in feet or meters, depending on your preference.

Conclusion

In this article, we mainly introduce six factors attaching to the fiber jumper cables—cable type, jacket diameters, jacket material, connector type, type of communication service as well as the length. You can select the proper patch cord you need through considering those six attributes. Hope this post is helpful for you to fully understand optical fiber jumper.

 

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Posted in Fiber Optic Cable

Types of outdoor fiber optic cable

We may quite familiar with indoor fiber optic cable, because it is an indispensable part of our daliy life. But for outdoor fiber optical cables, there are many factors needed to be considered, such as Ultraviolet, specific environment and etc. Different outdoor fiber optic cable matches for different environment. So what are they? And how they apply? This article would put emphasis on introducing the following four types of outdoor fiber optic cable, both singlemode fiber outdoor cables and multimode fiber outdoor cables are fully covered.

Aerial outdoor cable

Aerial outdoor cable is a kind of fiber optic cable, which is designed to be easier to install and faster to terminate than loose tube cables. 900-µm tight-buffered cables (one kind of aerial outdoor cable) are UL riser- and plenum-rated fiber optic patch cable, which are specially suited for duct and aerial installation points. No transition points are required at the building entrance.

Aerial outdoor cable

The construction of this kind of fiber optic patch cord consists of color-coded buffered fibers surrounded by water-swellable aramid-strength members and a ripcord under an overall UV-resistant, flame-retardant black jacket. Bundles of six or 12 fibers are used for cables with fiber counts over 24. A water-swellable tape barrier provides additional water-blocking to protect the interstices from axial moisture migrations. Cables are available with fiber counts ranging from 6 to 48. Distribution cables include a selection of 62.5/125 µm and 50/125 µm multimode outdoor cables cables and singlemode outdoor cables enhanced.

Dry water-blocking outdoor cables

Being exploited by a dry water-blocking technology, dry water-blocking outdoor cables are designed to withstand harsh outdoor conditions. This kind of fiber optic cable is suitable for use within buildings, for outdoor installations or transitional aerial and duct applications, and for entrance facilities that require riser- or plenum-rated cable. An all-dielectric construction requires no grounding or bonding, while an armored cable construction has interlocking aluminum armor that eliminates the need for innerduct or conduit. The RoHS-compliant cable is available in singlemode (meets OS1 and proposed OS2 standards) and multimode (OM1, OM2, and10-Gbits/sec laser optimized OM3) types, and in fiber counts up to 144. This kind of fiber optic patch cord is an optimal choice under harsh environment.

Plenum outdoor cables

Plenum outdoor cables are flame-retardant and suitable for aerial, duct, riser and plenum installations. No transition splice is required when entering the building from a dedicated outside plant cable. Part of the company’s LANs solutions, these cables feature 250-µm color-coded fibers for simplified identification during installation. The loose tube design provides mechanical and environment durability, and the cable’s all-dielectric construction requires no grounding or bonding. This kind of fiber optic cable is available with 12 to 60 fibers and in 62.5- and 50-µm (including laser-optimized) and singlemode fiber outdoor versions, along with a flexible, flame-retardant, UV-resistant jacket.

plenum-wire-cable

Outdoor cable for factory

Featuring a proprietary pressure-extruded (core-locked) tightly bound outer jacket that firmly binds all fibers together so that the cable moves as a solid, rope-like unit, these tight-buffered cables are suited for industrial applications. This kind of fiber optic patch cable is designed with flex resistance of thousands of cycles, crush resistance of 2200 N/cm, the ability to withstand 1,000 impacts, and tensile load rating exceeding a ton. They are also constructed to withstand caustic and volatile chemicals, excessive moisture and fungus, UV exposure, and operating temperatures ranging from -55℃to 124℃. They are perfect options for factory environment.

 

Posted in Fiber Optic Cable

OS2 Singlemode Simplex Vs. Duplex Patch Cable

As known to all, the fiber optic cables are divided into two types: singlemode and multimode, based on a completely different core diameter and mode of transmission. Singlemode fiber optic patch cables are called 9/125. This indicates the glass core is nine microns in diameter. The “125” is the size of the core plus the cladding (125 microns). Singlemode fiber optic patch cables can further be divided into simplex and duplex. This article would put emphasis on singlemode simplex and singlemode duplex fiber patches.

The ends of fiber patch are connected with connector plugs for connection of light circuit activity. If the cable has only one end terminated with connector while the other end ended with fiber, and then it is called pigtail. As we mentioned, the singlemode and multimode are two types of fiber patch cable. The diameter of the singlemode fiber core is 8μm~10μm. Fiber core is rounded with glass cover of lower refractive index than that of the fiber core, keeping the fiber inside the core. Outside the glass coating, it is a layer of thin plastic coating to protect the coating.

Compared to multimode fiber, singlemode fiber has a small loss in the long transmission distance. The potential of singlemode fiber’s bandwidth makes it the only option for high-speed and long-distance data transmission. Simplex and duplex singlemode fiber cables are the further classification of singlemode patch cables. Simplex means this cable is with only one thread of fiber optic glass inside the single core. Duplex fiber cable can be regarded as two simplex cables, either singlemode or multimode, having their jackets conjoined by a strip of jacket material, usually in a zipcord (side-by-side) style. In the following figures and charts, we would give two groups of comparison about OS2 LC to LC fiber cable (singlemode simplex and duplex) according to different polish type (UPC and APC).

Comparison group 1: LC/UPC-LC/UPC singlemode simplex Vs. duplex patch cable

LC(UPC)-LC(UPC) Singlemode simplex VS duplex

Figure1: LC/UPC-LC/UPC singlemode simplex patch cable Vs. LC/UPC-LC/UPC singlemode duplex patch cable

Chart1-UPC singlemode simplex Vs duplex patch cable

Chart1: LC/UPC-LC/UPC singlemode simplex patch cable Vs. LC/UPC-LC/UPC singlemode duplex patch cable

Comparison group 2: LC/APC-LC/APC singlemode simplex Vs. duplex patch cable

LC (APC)-LC(APC) single-mode duplex patch cable VS LC (APC)-LC(APC) single-mode simplex patch cable

Figure2: LC/UPC-LC/UPC singlemode simplex patch cable Vs. LC/UPC-LC/UPC singlemode duplex patch cable

Chart2-APC singlemode simplex Vs duplex patch cable

Chart2: LC/UPC-LC/UPC singlemode simplex patch cable Vs. LC/UPC-LC/UPC singlemode duplex patch cable

According to the above pictures and charts, we figure out the differences between LC/UPC-LC/UPC singlemode simplex patch cable and LC/UPC-LC/UPC singlemode duplex patch cable, and between LC/UPC-LC/UPC singlemode simplex patch cable and LC/UPC-LC/UPC singlemode duplex patch cable based on the detailed parameter. In the simplex fiber patch, data is only supported in the one direction while the duplex patch allows the data to transmit in two directions.

Conclusion

Therefore, duplex communication is the combination of simplex single communications which requires that both sender and receiver have the independent ability of transmitting and receiving. Singlemode fiber patch cables are the best choice for transmitting data over long distances. They are usually used for connections over large areas, such as college campuses and cable television networks.

 

Posted in Fiber Optic Cable

Bend Insensitive Fiber Optic Cables: Advantages & Compatibility

Optical fiber is made by glass or plastic, so it is easy to be bent. As is known to all, the main function of optical fiber is transmitting light. Once the fiber has been bent, there must be fiber loss during the process of transmission. New type of “bend-insensitive” singlemode and multimode fiber were introduced in 2007 and in 2009 respectively. This kind of fiber is specifically manufactured for the fibers could be bent in what seemed like impossibly small radii without significant light loss. This article would introduce the advantage and compatibility of bend insensitive fiber optic cables.

Bend Insensitive Fiber Optic Cables

As being mentioned, bend insensitive fiber optic cables provide a effective solution for accidentally twisting or bending the cable. But what are they? “Bend Insensitive” or BI cable is designed to be resistant to bend related damage. BI fiber cable has a flex cycle count in the thousands, sometimes as high as 7,500 or more cycles. In addition, it has a much smaller bend radius, meaning it can tolerate tighter corners or being wrapped around cable management equipment.

om4-lc-lc-bend-insensitive-50125-multimode-dx-fiber-cable

Different from the regular fiber, bend-insensitive fiber adds a layer of glass around the core of the fiber which has a lower index of refraction that literally “reflects” the weakly guided modes back into the core when stress normally causes them to be coupled into the cladding. Some early singlemode fibers (depressed-cladding fibers) used a similar technology to contain the light in the core of the fiber but this design has a much stronger effect. The following picture shows the technique of bend-insensitive multimode fiber.

technique of bend-insensitive multimode fiber

Advantages

Compared to the normal fiber, bend-insensitive fiber has absolute predominance. In buildings, it allows fiber to be run inside molding around the ceiling or floor and around doors or windows without inducing high losses. It is also insurance against problems caused by careless installation. In patch panels, it should not suffer from bending losses where the cables are tightly bent around the racks. BI fibers are also available in 50/125 MM (OM3 and OM4) and SM versions. Considering the advantages of BI fiber and the small incremental cost to manufacture it, some manufacturers have decided to make all their 50/125 MM fiber bend-insensitive fiber.

BIMMF

Do BI Fiber Compatible With Regular Fiber?

The answer is yes for SM fibers. Since only one mode is guided in the core, the trench has a minimal impact on system performance and measurement. It seems you can mix and match regular and BI SMF fibers with no problems. For MM fibers, it is still needed to be proved. Owing to the limitation of the current technology, the compatibility with MMF is not so sure so far. Measurement of core size, NA, differential mode delay (DMD) and bandwidth were developed prior to the introduction of BI MMF designs. These measurements are in the process of being evaluated and updated so measurement results may depend on the manufacturer of the BI MMF.

Conclusion

Bend-insensitive fiber has been widely applied in premises installations like apartment buildings or for patch cables, where it simplifies installation and use. BI SMF is also used in OSP cables since it allows fabrication of smaller, lighter high fiber count cables. Using bend-insensitive fiber cable, it is unnecessary to worry about the accidentally twisting or bending the cable.

 

Posted in Fiber Optic Cable

Applications of Fiber Optic Cable

Around 4 decades ago, fiber optic cable brought earthshaking changes to the world, especially for the telecommunication industry. Optic fiber cable has right advantage compared to copper cable in terms of bandwidth, distance, security, reliability and etc. Fiber cables, made of very thin strands of pure glass, can travel between 984.2 ft to 24.8 miles while the maximum transmission distance is 9,328 ft. Nowadays, the common fiber cables are use metallic wires instead of traditional approaches of wiring. And they have been applied to many industries, which are mainly described as the following.

Fiber Optical cable

Computer Networking

Using fiber optic cables, data transformation between computers in one same building or some nearby places become faster and easier than copper medium. This make computer network users can receive and read information and files just a few seconds, which incredibly saved time and enhanced efficiency.

Cable Television

Over the years, optical fiber cables are widely applied to cable television from the aspect of speed and price. With the higher and great bandwidth and speed, the optical fiber cables are optimal solutions for high definition televisions. Besides, the fiber cables are cost effective choices compared to the same quantity of copper wire.

Cable television with fiber cable

Internet

Unlike copper cable, fiber optic cables are less bulky, more flexible and carry more data. They can transmit large amounts of data at very high speeds. Therefore, they have been extensively used in Internet cables.

Telephone

Decades ago, we could only communicates with each other by letters, telegraphs, walkie-talkies, that is too time-consuming and would sometimes cause some irreparable losses for the sake of timeliness. By using fiber optic communication, we could talk to anybody at anywhere we like without any delay. We can receive and transmit our information simultaneously. This effectively improved our time on communication.

Mechanical Inspections

Optical fiber cables can also be deployed into inspection of hard-to-reach places. They are especially applied to on-site inspections for engineers as well as inspection of pipes for plumbers.

Surgery and Dentistry

In the field of medicine and research, you would also find the traces of fiber optic cables. Besides, they are widely applied to microscopy and biomedical researched as well. As an paramount part of non-intrusive surgical methods (also known as endoscopy). In the process of such kind of surgery, bright light is used to lighten the wound on the body. In this way, the number and size of incisions could be possibly reduced.

Military and Space Applications

Data security and confidentiality attach great importance to military and aerospace applications, fiber optic cables provide an ideal solution for data transmission in these areas.

Automotive Industry

In the field of automotive industry, fiber optic cables mainly function in the lighting and safety parts. With their superior lighting and narrow spacing, fiber optic cables are widely used in lighting in automotive industry, both in the interior and exterior of vehicles. Moreover, fiber optic cables can transmit signals between different parts of the vehicle at lightning speed and have been deployed in many other vehicles as well, especially the vehicles related to lighting. This attaches great importance in the use of safety applications such as traction control and airbags.

Lighting And Decorations

As we mentioned in the last paragraph, fiber optical cables have been widely deployed into the industry related to lighting. And thus, they could be used for decorations for house, streets, office, almost everywhere you want to decorate. They are easy, economical and attractive solution to lighting projects, especially for celebrating some festivals, birthday parties.

Fiber-optical-cable-lighting.

Conclusion

Fiber optic cables provide a convenient, cost-effective and easy solution to many applications of industries, and they have been penetrated almost every walk of life. This article mainly discussed about their main applications—computer networking, cable television, Internet, telephone, mechanical inspections, surgery and dentistry, military and space, automobile, lighting and decorations.

Posted in Fiber Optic Cable

FTTH Fiber Drop Cable—Indoor&Outdoor Application

As an access to providing high-speed Internet speed, Fiber to the home (FTTH) has been highly favored in recent years. It can achieve high-speed and long distance transmission, from a central point directly to individual buildings such as residences, apartment buildings and businesses through installation and use of optical fiber. FTTH drop cable plays a prominent role during this process. So what is FTTH drop cable? And how to install? This article would provide a satisfied answer for you.

About FTTH Drop Cable

FTTH drop cable contains 1 to 4 colored singlemode optical fibers with 250 µm individually, which provides a good solution for fiber to the home last mile solution. The cable contains two Fibre Reinforced Plastic (FRP) strength members and Low Smoke Zero Halogen (LSZH) jacket with nominal dimension 2 x 3 mm. They are fully meet the RoHS standards. With its small diameter, light weight and special structure, it is easy to use, to handle and to pull the fibers out from the cables. It is an ideal option for direct installation into the houses.

FTTH Drop Cable

Features&Benefits

• Choice of fibre types
• Individually coloured optical fibres
• Notched 2 x 3 mm construction for easy stripping
• Singlemode optical fibre meeting ITU-T G.657A1 or ITU-T G.657A2 standard

How to Choose Right LSZH Jacket?

You can choose white LSZH jacket for indoor use and black LSZH jacket for outdoor use within short distance. For the white cables that are installed where they may be in direct sunlight for extended periods of time will need to be replaced more often. So we need to pick black LSZH jacket for they are UV-resistant.

White and Black LSZH Jacket

Indoor And Outdoor Applications

There are mainly three applications of FTTH drop cables: internal FTTH applications horizontal and riser, clipping to surfaces including skirting boards, and short distance external use with black LSZH jacket. Due to time and space limiting, this article would mainly introduce the internal horizontal and riser cabling for FTTH applications, which attach great importance to FTTH cabling.

Horizontal Cabling

Drop cable all dielectric for Fibre To The Home (FTTH or FTTx) application, this means we need intrabuilding conduit. Conduit can be made of metallic tubing or rigid polyvinyl-chloride plastic. Conduit runs should be limited to 100 feet, with no more than two 90-degree bends between pull points or boxes. It runs can be in ceilings or walls or under floors.

Horizontal Cabling

To apply the FTTH fiber drop cable, we need pull boxes. They are installed for fishing the run and looping the cable for the next length of conduit. Pull boxes are not used for splicing cable. Fish tapes or pull cords should always be placed in the conduit to ease installation. Inner duct is an excellent tool for protecting cable and easing future installations.

Riser Cabling

Drop optical fiber cables intended for vertical applications have a calculated maximum vertical rise value assigned to them. The vertical rise is the distance the cable may be pulled vertically before being supported. It is determined by the weight of the cable and its ability to resist buckling or kinking.

You can use split wire mesh grips to pull cable vertically. The device works like basket or finger grips, supporting the cable without crushing the core. Cables should be supported by cable ties, straps or clamps in wiring closets. Whenever possible, begin the installation from the top, allowing the weight of the cable to help the pull rather than adding more load.

Conclusion

FTTH dramatically and unprecedentedly increases the connection speeds available to computer users. FTTH drop optical cable is a special cable that provide a perfect solution for FTTH transmission. The article mainly discussed its definition, benefits and applications.

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Solutions to Common Issues About Fiber Optic Cable

It is a common sense that the light of optic transmission can travel much longer distances than normal transmission medium. And that is why fiber optic cable is of popularity than copper cable those years. Apart from the higher bandwidth, its very high performance data working and telecommunications has won the good reputation for itself. As it has been used by more and more Ethernet users, some common problems about fibre cable occur. Then how to solve them? This passage would provide a satisfied answer for you.

Fiber Damage

It is reckless to judge whether the fibers within the cable are broken or damaged just by looking at it through the naked eye. In most cases, the fiber damage would not so evident that could be observed by its outer appearance. Under this occasion, a fiber optic tracer can be utilized to trace any faults within the cable. Its operation principle just like a miniature flashlight that uses an LED and can be fitted to the the cable connector for the purpose of checking continuity. If the fibers are all complete and not damaged, you can see the light from the two ends the cable is shone.

Optical fibers

Connectors

LC, SC, ST, FC, MPO, MTP…are common connectors of optic cords, and it is paramount to fit correct connectors to the fiber cable. Before you use the fibre cable, you should check each of the connectors to see if they well fitted or not. If not, it is necessary for you to rectify it by inserting them properly. If the issue still happens, you can replace the cable by a cable of spring loaded connectors. In that way, the connectors would fit the cable securely and would not slip out.

fiber optical cables

Length Problem

Once the a fiber optic cable has redundant length after it has been used for a connection, there are potential risks with the left cable and it would result in permanent damage to the fibers and components within the cable. The potential risks are bending, twisting or winding around the cable itself. Almost every store provides different cable length for meeting the requirement of various length demand, especially the online store, they still offer the service of customizing, and you can get the exact cable length according to your actual demand. Before you look through the online cable store, it is essential for you to get your optimal needing length by using a measuring tape. You can position all the equipment that you intend to connect with the cable, and then measure the distance of them and get the approximate length.

LC-patch-cords

Stretching Problem

If an optical fiber cable being stretched over a range itself, and then the fiber and other components within the cable would be damaged. You can move the cables closer or buy an additional cable with proper length. There is another case would cause stretching. Sometimes, it just occurs when you pulling at the jacket of the cable. You should use the grips at the connectors designed to be used to fit and remove them.

External Damage

It is quite necessary to have a thorough visual inspection of the optical fiber cable from time to time. Because any defects would affect the ability of the cable to work properly and even bring unimaginably consequences. During the inspection, if you find any prominent defect occurs, such as splits or scratches, and then please replace the cable.

Conclusion

It seems that it is an irresistible trend to use optical fiber cables now and future. According to this article, we are cleared that some basic solutions for the some common issues about fibre cables.